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Chiropractor Englishtown NJ

The practice of chiropractic medicine in Englishtown NJ involves a range of diagnostic methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and orthopedic and neurological evaluation. A chiropractor may also refer a patient to an appropriate specialist, or co-manage with another health care provider. Common patient management involves spinal manipulation (SM) and other manual therapies to the joints and soft tissues, rehabilitative exercises, health promotion, electrical modalities, complementary procedures, and lifestyle counseling.

Chiropractors are not licensed to write medical prescriptions or perform major surgery in the U.S., but that recently changed when New Mexico became the first state to allow "advanced practice" trained chiropractors the ability to prescribe certain medications. Their scope of practice varies by state, based on inconsistent views of chiropractic care: some states, such as Iowa, broadly allow treatment of "human ailments"; some, such as Delaware, use vague concepts such as "transition of nerve energy" to define scope of practice; others, such as New Jersey, specify a severely narrowed scope.

Massage Englishtown NJ

Massage is the working of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue using various techniques, to enhance function, aid in the healing process, and promote relaxation and well-being in Howell NJ. The word comes from the French massage "friction of kneading", or from Arabic massa meaning "to touch, feel or handle" or from Latin massa meaning "mass, dough", cf. Greek verb μάσσω (massō) "to handle, touch, to work with the hands, to knead dough". In distinction the ancient Greek word for massage was anatripsis, and the Latin was frictio.

Massage involves working and acting on the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Target tissues may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, and feet. There are over eighty different recognized massage modalities. The most cited reasons for introducing massage as therapy have been client demand and perceived clinical effectiveness.

In professional settings massage involves the client being treated while lying on a massage table, sitting in a massage chair, or lying on a mat on the floor. Most states in the US have licensing requirements for massage therapists.

Carpal Tunnel Englishtown NJ

In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the middle compartment of the deep plane of the palm. The tunnel consists of bones and connective tissue. Several tendons and a nerve pass through it.

The canal is narrow and when any of the nine long flexor tendons passing through it swells or degenerates, the narrowing of the canal often results in the median nerve becoming entrapped or compressed, a medical condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.

The carpus, the bony elements of the wrist, form an arch which is convex on the dorsal side of the hand and concave on the palmar side. The groove on the palmar side, the sulcus carpi, is covered by the flexor retinaculum, a sheath of toughconnective tissue, thus forming the carpal tunnel. The flexor retinaculum is attached radially to the scaphoid tubercle and the ridge of trapezium, and on the ulna side to the pisiform and hook of hamate.

The narrowest section of the tunnel is located a centimetre beyond the mid-line of the distal row of carpal bones where the sectional area is limited to 1.6 cm2.

The tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus pass through a common ulnar sheath, while the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus passes through a separate radial sheath. The mesotendon shared by these tendons is attached to the radial and palmar walls of the carpal tunnel.

Superficial to the carpal tunnel and the flexor retinaculum, the ulnar artery and ulnar nerve pass through the ulnar tunnel.

A total of nine flexor tendons (not the muscles themselves) pass through the carpal tunnel:

flexor carpi radialis (one tendon), considered by some as part of the carpal tunnel although it is more precise to state that it travels in the flexor retinaculum which covers the carpal tunnel, rather than running in the tunnel itself.

A single nerve passes through the tunnel: the median nerve between tendons of flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis

Effect of wrist movements

Movements in the wrist affect the shape and width of the carpal tunnel. The width decreases considerably during normal range of motion in the wrist and because the carpal bones move in relation to each other with every motion of the hand the bony walls of the tunnel are not rigid. Both flexion and extension increase compression in the carpal tunnel.

  • Flexing the wrist causes the flexor retinaculum to move closer to the radius which considerably decreases the cross section of the proximal opening of the tunnel. Additionally, the distal end of the capitate presses into the opening.
  • In extreme extension, the lunate constricts the passage as it is pressed toward the interior of the tunnel.

Car Accident Englishtown NJ

Did you know that one of the most stressful aspects of living in modern Englishtown NJ life is dealing with the problems that arise after an auto accident? Were you also aware that some auto accident injuries are hidden and are seldom detected for months or even years? As a result, two things can occur when an injury is not taken care of properly, or the accident victims settle their case with the insurance companies before getting evaluated from a Doctor trained in soft tissue injuries.

traffic collision, also known as a traffic accidentmotor vehicle collisionmotor vehicle accidentcar accidentautomobile accidentroad traffic collisionroad traffic accidentwreck (USA), car crash, or car smash(Australian) occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree or utility pole. Traffic collisions may result in injury, death, vehicle damage, and property damage.

A number of factors contribute to the risk of collision, including vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, road environment, driver skill and/or impairment, and driver behavior. Worldwide, motor vehicle collisions lead to death and disability as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved.

The latest WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety shows that almost all high-income countries have a decreasing death toll, while in the majority of low-income countries the numbers of road deaths are increasing. Nevertheless, middle-income countries are hit the hardest: 20.1 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, 80% of all road fatalities by only 52% of all vehicles, globally. While the death rate in Africa is the highest (24.1 per 100,000 inhabitants), the lowest rate is to be found in Europe (10.3).

Sports Injury Englishtown NJ

Whether you are a Englishtown NJ weekend athlete or a professional, there are a few things that all athletes have in common. They wantto have the best possible performance in their chosen sport, and they both can get injured.

Let's take the weekend athlete, or for that matter, anyone who enjoys exercising. Injuries happen, pure and simple. While they can be minimized, they cannot be totally avoided. If a person participates enough in any physical activity, eventually that person will get hurt to some degree. The way in which one treats his injuries determines how fast one recovers and how quickly onecan get back to the activity he enjoys.

Athletes may ask themselves why they get injured? They stretch out, and feel like they are in pretty good shape. So, why? Usually there is a very simple formula. In most cases, we play too hard, too long, or too fast. In the case of household duties such as spring cleaning, do any of us warm up before carrying those boxes into the crawl space of our ceilings? This may not seem like a sports injury, but in fact, overuse syndromes or playing full speed before we are really warmed up are the major causes of sports injuries. Simple household chores, while done cold, can mimic a sports injury to some extent.

If an athlete gets hurt, what can be done to get him back on the field? Rest is usually a good thing, but by itself, can take a very long time.

Chiropractic offers a balanced approach to the treatment and the healing of sports injuries. By using the chiropractic adjustment to return spinal segments to their normal mobility and by using physical therapy to help the supportive tissues (muscles, tendons, & ligaments), chiropractic physicians help the injured areas return to normal function. Combined with some rest to help the healing process, athletes will find their way back on the court. Afterward, better strategies for exercise and stretching will be discussed with the athlete to help him stay on the straight and narrow path to better enjoyment of his chosen sport.

Many professional athletes are utilizing chiropractic care more and more because they realize that it helps them maximize athletic performance. Articles continue to appear in major newspapers and magazines citing such stars as Arnold Schwartzeneger, former boxing champ Evander Holyfield, and football stars such as Emmit Smith and Joe Montana proclaiming the benefits that chiropractic has meant for their careers. More and more professional and college teams are utilizing care for that same reason.

If you can remember that the whole premise of chiropractic health care is to restore spinal health so that the body has the best opportunity to maximize proper function, it is not hard to understand why the Pros enjoy what chiropractic has to offer.

Numbness Englishtown NJ

Several causes of numbness and tingling to the arms originate in the neck. Perhaps the most common in Englishtown NJ is restriction of movement of a spinal joint. This may cause direct friction to the nerve root as it exits the spine or secondary muscle tightness, which can also produce nerve friction. Factors such as disc bulging, herniation or rupture, degeneration or thinning of the spinal discs narrow the nerve openings in the spine and predispose to nerve irritation. Those with disc injury or degeneration, however, respond to treatment well if normal joint movement can be restored with manipulation. We also utilize medical protocol to restore treatment to these joints allowing optimal healing.

Paresthesia spelled "paraesthesia" in British English, is a sensation of tingling, burning, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect. It is more generally known as the feeling of "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". The manifestation of paresthesia may be transient or chronic.

Hypoesthesia (or hypesthesia) refers to a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity tosensory stimuli. In everyday speech this is sometimes referred to as "numbness".

Hypoesthesia is one of the negative sensory symptoms associated with cutaneous sensory disorder (CSD). In this condition, patients have abnormal disagreeable skin sensations that can be increased (stinging, itching or burning) or decreased (numbness or hypoesthesia). There are no other apparent medical diagnoses to explain these symptoms.

Hypoesthesia is also one of the more common manifestations of decompression sickness (DCS), along with joint pain,rash and generalized fatigue.

Sholder Pain Englishtown NJ

Few disorders of the spine rival the frequency of low back pain. One such disorder, however, is neck pain. Just as low back pain often is accompanied by numbness or tingling in one or both legs, neck pain is often accompanied by these sensations in the arms. While many persons attribute these sensations to "circulation", they most often result from pinching or irritation of a spinal nerve.

Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well.

Shoulder pain may be localized or may be deferred to areas around the shoulder or down the arm. Disease within the body (such as gallbladder, liver, or heart disease, or disease of the cervical spine of the neck) also may generate pain that the brain may interpret as arising from the shoulder. Conversely, pain felt in the region of the shoulder blade or scapula nearly always has its origin in the neck.

The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. "Shoulder joint" typically refers to the glenohumeral joint, which is the major joint of the "shoulder," but can more broadly include the acromioclavicular joint. In human anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, the head sitting in theglenoid fossa. The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint.

There are two kinds of cartilage in the joint. The first type is the white cartilage on the ends of the bones (called articular cartilage) which allows the bones to glide and move on each other. When this type of cartilage starts to wear out (a process called arthritis), the joint becomes painful and stiff. The labrum is a second kind of cartilage in the shoulder which is distinctly different from the articular cartilage. This cartilage is more fibrous or rigid than the cartilage on the ends of the ball and socket. Also, this cartilage is also found only around the socket where it is attached.

The shoulder must be mobile enough for the wide range actions of the arms and hands, but also stable enough to allow for actions such as lifting, pushing and pulling. The compromise between mobility and stability results in a large number of shoulder problems not faced by other joints such as the hip.

Back Pain Englishtown NJ

Doctors of Chiropractic (DC) in Englishtown NJ, more commonly known as chiropractors, typically treat conditions involving back pain and/or neck pain through “hands-on” chiropractic care, including:

  • Spinal manipulation and manual manipulation.1 Referring to a high-velocity, short lever arm thrust that is applied to abnormal vertebra with the goal of improving functionality, reducing nerve irritability and restoring range of motion in the back, manual manipulation is also known as chiropractic adjustment.

Back pain (also known as dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.

Back pain may have a sudden onset or can be a chronic pain; it can be constant or intermittent, stay in one place or radiate to other areas. It may be a dull ache, or a sharp or piercing or burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include symptoms other than pain, such as weakness, numbness or tingling.

Back pain is one of humanity's most frequent complaints. In the U.S., acute low back pain (also called lumbago) is the fifth most common reason for physician visits. About nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults have back pain every year.

The spine is a complex interconnecting network of nerves, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, and all are capable of producing pain. Large nerves that originate in the spine and go to the legs and arms can make pain radiate to the extremities.

Knee Pain Englishtown NJ

"Help! I have pain in my knees and I have been told there is nothing I can do apart from taking painkillers and rest."

Knee pain is an increasing problem in society and as a result we see more and more patients with knee problems in our centres. Chiropractic treatment is very effective for many of the problems that cause knee pain and although a condition such as osteoarthritis is not curable, the symptoms can be reduced and the progression of the problem can be helped thanks to our unique approach to treatment. Please read on to find out how!

  • If knee pain is limiting your day-to-day or sporting activities,
  • you have been given painkillers and been told to rest with no long-term improvement, or
  • you have been told you have arthritis and there is nothing that can be done?

Then chiropractic treatment may well be the answer.

Knee pain is a common complaint for many Englishtown NJ people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain. Awareness and knowledge of knee pain causes lead to faster diagnosis and treatment. Knee pain can be related to knee joint or around the knee. Pain in one of the knees is most commonly caused by overusing the knee or suddenly injuring it.

Sinus Pain Englishtown NJ

Some people do not realize why chiropractors target customers who have more than just back pain. The reason they are targeting sinuses, in this response, is because we have sinuses in our necks. Any esthetician or massage therapist will also say the same thing. They study these sinuses of the body. If a person's neck is out of alignment, then yes, an adjustment can help a person's sinuses. If you have never been to a chiropractor before, try one.

In anatomy, a sinus is a cavity within a bone or other tissue. Most are commonly found in the bones of the face and connecting with the nasal cavities.

In the heart:

  • Sinus node, a structure in the superior part of the right atrium;
  • Sinus rhythm, normal beating on an ECG;
  • Coronary sinus, a vein collecting blood from the heart;
  • Sinus venosus, a cavity in the heart of embryos;
  • Sinus venarum, a part of the wall of the right atrium in adults, developed from the sinus venosus;

Other:

  • Sinus (botany), a space or indentation, usually on a leaf.
  • normal heart rat

Senior Citizens Englishtown NJ

Senior citizen is a common polite designation for an elderly person in both UK and US English, and it implies or means that the person is retired. This in turn usually implies or in fact means that the person is over the retirement age, which varies according to country. Synonyms include pensioner in UK English and retiree and senior in US English. Some dictionaries describe widespread usage of "senior citizen" for people over the age of 65. "Senior citizen" is replacing the term old-age pensioner traditionally used in UK English.

When defined in an official context, "senior citizen" is often used for legal or policy-related reasons in determining who is eligible for certain benefits available to the age group.

In Englishtown NJ it is used in general usage instead of traditional terms such as "old person", "old-age pensioner", or "elderly" as a courtesy and to signify continuing relevance of and respect for this population group as "citizens" of society, of "senior" rank.

The term was apparently coined in 1938 during a political campaign. It has come into widespread use in recent decades in legislation, commerce, and common speech. Especially in less formal contexts, it is often abbreviated as "senior(s)", which is also used as an adjective.

In commerce, some businesses offer customers of a certain age a "senior discount". The age at which these discounts are available vary between 55, 60 or 65, and other criteria may also apply. Sometimes a special "senior discount card" or other proof of age needs to be obtained and produced to show entitlement.

Migraine Englishtown NJ

Migraine is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The word derives from the Greek ἡμικρανία (hemikrania), "pain on one side of the head", from ἡμι- (hemi-), "half", and κρανίον (kranion), "skull".

Typically the headache affects one half of the head, is pulsating in nature, and lasts from 2 to 72 hours. Associated symptoms may include nauseavomiting, and sensitivity to lightsound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity. Up to one-third of people with migraine headaches perceive an aura: a transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur. Occasionally an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.

Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Changing hormone levels may also play a role, as migraines affect slightly more boys than girls before puberty, but about two to three times more women than men. The risk of migraines usually decreases during pregnancy. The exact mechanisms of migraine are not known. It is, however, believed to be a neurovascular disorder. The primary theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.

Initial recommended management is with simple analgesics such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers. Specific agents such astriptans or ergotamines may be used by those for whom simple analgesics are not effective. Globally, approximately 15% of the population is affected by migraines at some point in life.

Migraines typically present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms. About 15–30% of people with migraines experience migraines with an aura and those who have migraines with aura also frequently have migraines without aura. The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks is variable. A migraine lasting longer than 72 hours is termed status migrainosus. There are four possible phases to a migraine, although not all the phases are necessarily experienced:

  1. The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache
  2. The aura, which immediately precedes the headache
  3. The pain phase, also known as headache phase
  4. The postdrome, the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attack

TMJ Englishtown NJ

The temporomandibular joint is the joint of the jaw and is frequently referred to as TMJ. The TMJ is a bilateral synovial articulation between the mandible and temporal bone. The name of the joint is derived from the two bones which form thejoint: the upper temporal bone which is part of the cranium (skull), and the lower jawbone or mandible.

There are six main components of the TMJ.

  • Mandibular condyles
  • Articular surface of the temporal bone
  • Capsule
  • Articular disc
  • Ligaments
  • Lateral pterygoid

The most common disorder of the TMJ is disc displacement. In essence, this is when the articular disc, attached anteriorly to the superior head of the lateral pteygoid muscle and posteriorly to the retrodiscal tissue, moves out from between the condyle and the fossa, so that the mandible and temporal bone contact is made on something other than the articular disc. This, as explained above, is usually very painful, because unlike these adjacent tissues, the central portion of the disc contains no sensory innervation.

In most instances of Englishtown NJ disorder, the disc is displaced anteriorly upon translation, or the anterior and inferior sliding motion of the condyle forward within the fossa and down the articular eminence. On opening, a "pop" or "click" can sometimes be heard and usually felt also, indicating the condyle is moving back onto the disk, known as "reducing the joint" (disc displacement with reduction). Upon closing, the condyle will slide off the back of the disc, hence another "click" or "pop" at which point the condyle is posterior to the disc. Upon clenching, the condyle compresses the bilaminar area, and the nerves, arteries and veins against the temporal fossa, causing pain and inflammation.

In disc displacement without reduction the disc stays anterior to the condylar head upon opening. Mouth opening is limited and there is no "pop" or "click" sound on opening.

TMJ pain is generally due to one of four reasons.

  • The most common cause of TMJ pain is myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome, primarily involving the muscles of mastication.
  • Internal derangements is defined as an abnormal relationship of the disc to any of the other components of the TMJ. Disc displacement is an example of internal derangement.
  • Degenerative joint disease, otherwise known as osteoarthritis is the organic degeneration of the articular surfaces within the TMJ.
  • TMJ pain remains one of the most reliable diagnostic criteria for temporal arteritis.

Pain or dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint is commonly referred to as "TMJ", when in fact, TMJ is really the name of the joint, and Temporomandibular joint disorder (or dysfunction) is abbreviated TMD. This term is used to refer to a group of problems involving the TMJs and the muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other tissues associated with them. Some practitioners might include the neck, the back and even the whole body in describing problems with the TMJs.

Although rare, other pathologic conditions may affect the TMJ function, causing pain and swelling, as well. These conditions include chondrosarcomaosteosarcoma,giant cell tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst.

Arthritis Englishtown NJ

Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritispsoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.

The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.

Regardless of the type of arthritis, the common symptoms for all arthritis disorders include varied levels of pain, swelling,joint stiffness and sometimes a constant ache around the joint(s). Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid can also affect other organs in the body with a variety of symptoms.

It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, in someone who has limited their physical activity:

These changes can also impact on life and social roles, such as community involvement.

Tennis Elbow Englishtown NJ

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender. Tennis elbow is an acute or chronic inflammation of the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow (lateral epicondyle). The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from overuse — repeating the same motions again and again. This leads to inflammation, pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.

Any activity, including playing tennis, which involves the repetitive use of the extensor muscles of the forearm can cause acute or chronic tendonitis of the tendinous insertion of these muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. The condition is common in carpenters and other laborers who swing a hammer or other tool with the forearm.

Runge is usually credited for the first description of the condition, in 1873. The term tennis elbow first appeared in an 1883 paper by Major called Lawn-tennis elbow.

  • Pain on the outer part of the elbow (lateral epicondyle)
  • Point tenderness over the lateral epicondyle—a prominent part of the bone on the outside of the elbow
  • Pain from gripping and movements of the wrist, especially wrist extension and lifting movements
  • Pain from activities that use the muscles that extend the wrist (e.g. pouring a container of liquid, lifting with the palm down, sweeping, especially where wrist movement is required)
  • Morning stiffness

Symptoms associated with tennis elbow include, but are not limited to: radiating pain from the outside of the elbow to the forearm and wrist, pain during extension of wrist, weakness of the forearm, a painful grip while shaking hands or torquing a doorknob, and not being able to hold relatively heavy items in the hand. The pain is similar to the condition known as golfer's elbow, but the latter occurs at the medial side of the elbow.

Evidence for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis before 2010 was poor. There were clinical trials addressing many proposed treatments, but the trials were of poor quality.

A 2009 study looked at using eccentric exercise with a rubber bar in addition to standard treatment: the trial was stopped after 8 weeks because the improvement using the bar for therapy was so significant.  Based on small sample size and a follow-up only 7 weeks from commencement of treatment, the study shows short-term improvements. This along with other studies allowed doctors to conclude that approximately 80-95% of all tennis elbow cases can be treated without surgery. However, long-term results have not yet been determined.

In some cases, severity of tennis elbow symptoms mend without any treatment, within six to 24 months. Tennis elbow left untreated can lead to chronic pain that degrades quality of daily living.

Pregnancy Englishtown NJ

In human reproductionpregnancy (or gestation) is the development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo orfetus, in the uterus of a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one embryo or fetus in a single pregnancy, such as with twins.

Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception. In women who have a menstrual cycle length of four weeks, this is approximately 40 weeks from the start of the last normal menstrual period (LNMP). Health authorities recommend that women not artificially begin delivery with labor induction or caesarean section before 39 weeks as this amount of time is considered "full term" for the child to develop. Human pregnancy is the most studied of all mammalian pregnancies. Conception can be achieved through sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.

An embryo is the developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception, and subsequently the term fetus is used until birth. In many societies' medical or legal definitions, human pregnancy is somewhat arbitrarily divided into three trimester periods of three months each, as a means to simplify reference to the different stages of prenatal development. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). During the second trimester, the development of the fetus can be more easily monitored and diagnosed. The third trimester is marked by further growth of the fetus and the development of fetal fat stores. The point of fetal viability, or the point in time at which fetal life outside of the uterus is possible, usually coincides with the late second or early third trimesters; babies born at this early point in development are at high risk for having medical conditions and dying.

In the United States and United Kingdom, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies. Of those unintended pregnancies that occurred in the US, 60% of the women used birth control to some extent during the month pregnancy occurred.

Sciatica Englishtown NJ

Sciatica (sciatic neuritissciatic neuralgia, or lumbar radiculopathy) is a set of symptoms including pain caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots of each sciatic nerve—or by compression or irritation of the left or right or both sciatic nerves. Symptoms include lower back pain, buttock pain, and numbness, pain or weakness in various parts of the leg and foot. Other symptoms include a "pins and needles" sensation, or tingling and difficulty moving or controlling the leg. Typically, symptoms only manifest on one side of the body. The pain may radiate above the knee, but does not always.

Sciatica is a relatively common form of lower back and leg pain, but the true meaning of the term is often misunderstood. Sciatica is a set of symptoms rather than a diagnosis for what is irritating the root of the nerve to cause the pain. Treatment for sciatica or sciatic symptoms often differs, depending on underlying causes and pain levels. Causes include compression of the sciatic nerve roots by a herniated (torn) or protruding disc in the lower back.

The first known use of the word sciatica dates from 1451.

Spinal disc herniation

Spinal disc herniation pressing on one of the lumbar or sacral nerve roots is the primary cause of sciatica, being present in about 90% of cases.

Sciatica caused by pressure from a disc herniation and swelling of surrounding tissue can spontaneously subside if the tear in the disc heals and the pulposus extrusion and inflammation cease.

Spinal stenosis

Other compressive spinal causes include lumbar spinal stenosis, a condition in which the spinal canal (the spaces the spinal cord runs through) narrows and compresses the spinal cord, cauda equina, or sciatic nerve roots. This narrowing can be caused by bone spurs, spondylolisthesis, inflammation, or herniated disc, which decreases available space for the spinal cord, thus pinching and irritating nerves from the spinal cord that travel to the sciatic nerves.

Piriformis syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a controversial condition that, depending on the analysis, varies from a "very rare" cause to contributing to up to 8% of low back or buttock pain.[7] In 15% of the population, the sciatic nerve runs through, or under the piriformis muscle rather than beneath it. When the muscle shortens or spasms due to trauma or overuse, it's posited that this causes compression of the sciatic nerve.[7] It has colloquially been referred to as "wallet sciatica" since a wallet carried in a rear hip pocket compresses the buttock muscles and sciatic nerve when the bearer sits down. Piriformis syndrome cause sciatica when the nerve root is normal.

Pregnancy

Sciatica may also occur during pregnancy as a result of the weight of the fetus pressing on the sciatic nerve during sitting or during leg spasms. While most cases do not directly harm the fetus or the mother, indirect harm may come from the numbing effect on the legs, which can cause loss of balance and falling. There is no standard treatment for pregnancy induced sciatica.

Other

Sciatica can also be caused by tumours impinging on the spinal cord or the nerve roots. Severe back pain extending to the hips and feet, loss of bladder or bowel control, or muscle weakness may result from spinal tumours or cauda equina syndrome. Trauma to the spine, such as from a car accident, may also lead to sciatica.

Plantar Fasciitis Englishtown NJ

Plantar fasciitis (also known as plantar fasciopathy or jogger's heel) is a common painful disorder affecting the heel and underside of the foot. It is a disorder of the insertion site of ligament on the bone and is characterized by scarring,inflammation, or structural breakdown of the foot's plantar fascia. It is often caused by overuse injury of the plantar fascia, increases in exercise, weight or age. Though plantar fasciitis was originally thought to be an inflammatory process, newer studies have demonstrated structural changes more consistent with a degenerative process. As a result of this new observation, many in the academic community have stated the condition should be renamed plantar fasciosis.

Plantar fasciitis is the most common injury of the plantar fascia and is the most common cause of heel pain. Approximately 10% of people have plantar fasciitis at some point during their lifetime. It is commonly associated with long periods of standing and is much more prevalent in individuals with excessive inward rolling of the foot, which is seen with flat feet. Among non-athletic populations, plantar fasciitis is associated with obesity and lack of physical exercise.

The heel pain characteristic of plantar fasciitis is usually felt on the bottom of the heel and is most intense with the first steps of the day. Individuals with plantar fasciitis often have difficulty with dorsiflexion of the foot, an action in which the foot is brought toward the shin. This difficulty is usually due to tightness of the calf muscle or Achilles tendon, the latter of which is connected to the back of the plantar fascia. Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve on their own with time and respond well to conservative methods of treatment.

About 90% of plantar fasciitis cases are self-limiting and will improve within six months with conservative treatment, and within a year regardless of treatment. Many treatments have been proposed for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The effectiveness of most of these treatments has not been adequately investigated and consequently there is little evidence to support recommendations for such treatments.  First-line conservative approaches include rest, heat, ice, calf-strengthening exercises, techniques to stretch the calf muscles, achilles tendon, and plantar fascia, weight reduction in the overweight or obese, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen.  NSAIDs are commonly used to treat plantar fasciitis, but fail to resolve the pain in 20% of people.

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is an effective treatment modality for plantar fasciitis pain unresponsive to conservative nonsurgical measures for at least three months. Evidence from meta-analyses suggests significant pain relief lasts up to one year after the procedure. However, debate about the therapy's efficacy has persisted.  ESWT can be performed with or without anesthesia though studies have suggested that the therapy is less effective when anesthesia is given. Complications from ESWT are rare and typically mild when present.  Known complications of ESWT include the development of a mild hematoma or an ecchymosis,redness around the site of the procedure, or migraine.

Corticosteroid injections are sometimes used for cases of plantar fasciitis refractory to more conservative measures. The injections may be an effective modality for short-term pain relief up to one month, but studies failed to show effective pain relief after three months. Notable risks of corticosteroid injections for plantar fasciitis include plantar fascia rupture, skin infection, nerve or muscle injury, or atrophy of the plantar fat pad. Custom orthotic devices have been demonstrated as an effective method to reduce plantar fasciitis pain for up to 12 weeks. The long-term effectiveness of custom orthotics for plantar fasciitis pain reduction requires additional study. Orthotic devices and certain taping techniques are proposed to reduce pronation of the foot and therefore reduce load on the plantar fascia resulting in pain improvement.

Another treatment technique known as plantar iontophoresis involves applying anti-inflammatory substances such as dexamethasone or acetic acid topically to the foot and transmitting these substances through the skin with an electrical current. Moderate evidence exists to support the use of night splints for 1–3 months to relieve plantar fasciitis pain that has persisted for six months. The night splints are designed to position and maintain the ankle in a neutral position thereby passively stretching the calf and plantar fascia overnight during sleep. Other treatment approaches may include supportive footwear, arch taping, and physical therapy.

Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Chiropractic Treatment Englishtown NJ

Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Although its name suggests otherwise, osteoarthritis is not considered an inflammatory disease. Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion. A variety of causes—hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical deficits—may initiate processes leading to loss of cartilage. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bone may be exposed and damaged. As a result of decreased movement secondary to pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax.

Treatment generally involves a combination of exercise, lifestyle modification, and analgesics. If pain becomes debilitating, joint replacement surgery may be used to improve the quality of life. OA is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States. It affects about 1.9 million people in Australia, 8 million people in the United Kingdom and nearly 27 million people in the United States.

This type of OA is caused by other factors but the resulting pathology is the same as for primary OA:

In vertebrate anatomyhip (or "coxa" in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.

The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region (i.e. the buttock), inferior to the iliac crest, and overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone". In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region.

The hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint (art. coxae), is the joint between the femur andacetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures. The hip joints are the most important part in retaining balance. The pelvic inclination angle, which is the single most important element of human body posture, is mostly adjusted at the hips.

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